Cairo is one of the 27 governorates of Egypt and is the nowadays capital of Egypt. This governorate enjoys a deep-rooted history and heritage as all the governorates that exist in the Nile Valley. Equally, its history extends as long back as the history of civilisation in Egypt.
Location of Cairo Governorate
Cairo governorate extends for 25 km on the western bank of the Nile River in Egypt. Al-Qalyubiah governorate borders Cairo in the north, Giza governorate in the south, Suez governorate in the east and the Nile in the west.
History of Cairo Governorate
The ancient Egyptian constructed a city called Memphis. At that time, Memphis represented the capital of Egypt. Nowadays, this suburb we recognise as Mit Rahina, Giza Governorate.
Not significantly far from Memphis, the ancient Egyptian established another city on the eastern bank of the River Nile – Heliopolis. The ancient Egyptian called it “Iunu.” It was the capital of the 13th Nome of Lower Egypt and a major religious centre. Historically, this Heliopolite Nome existed in the area dedicated to the present Cairo. Further, Heliopolis rapidly expanded under the Old and Middle Kingdoms. The Ancient Egyptians built it where the nowadays Ayn Shams lies – a northeastern suburb in Cairo.
In Heliopolite Nome, the Romans established a fortress town along the eastern bank of the Nile. This fortress, Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and then the Byzantine city. Presently, it defines the oldest structure in Cairo. Many of Cairo’s oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, exist along that fortress walls. Currently, this section of the city shapes the Coptic Cairo.
After Arab Invasion
After the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641, Amr ibn Al-As built Al-Fustat, which became the capital of Egypt. In present days, it represents the southern part of the Cairo governorate.
Under the command of the Muslim Omayyad caliphate, the Abbasid overthrew Egypt in 750. Following this invasion, the new rulers developed their settlement to the northeast of Fustat. Later, this settlement became the new capital. They called this capital al-Askar “soldiers” because as they laid out like an armed camp.
A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar. He started the building of another settlement – Qatta’i. Once again, this new settlement became the capital of Egypt.
Later, in 905 AC., the Abbasid re-asserted control of the country. Then, their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta’i to the ground.
In 969 by The Fatimid dynasty found another capital to include all the ancient national capitals inside its walls. Its remains are still visible in parts of Old Cairo.
Since the 1860s, Cairo expanded west as far as Midan Opera.
Cairo is famous for its historical monuments. Many tourists visit it annually to enjoy sightseeing. For history and culture, trips head from Cairo and Giza to the various tourist destinations. Also, these trips arrive from Hurghada and Safaga and Marsa Alam to the place. Moreover, Cairo gets flights trips and tours Sharm El-Sheik and Luxor.
Accordingly, here’s a comprehensive list of the activities and things to do in Cairo, Egypt. For your convenience, we’ve grouped these entries into the following five basic categories:
- History Related/Sightseeing in Cairo.
- Also, Fun and Entertainments in Cairo.
History-Related and Sightseeing Activities
Cairo lies at 456 km from Luxor and 7 km from Giza. For sure, this unique location, eventually, increases the possibility to do several history-related activities and sightseeing tours. Also, it enables tourists to visit the monuments and attractions in the cities of Beni Suef, El-Minya, El-Minya, Alexandria etc.
The following presents a list of the activities tourists can choose. This list provides both the destination and the means of transportation to get to the place:
Administrative Divisions of Cairo Governorate
The Egyptian authorities divided the Cairo governorate into the following administrative sections:
- 15 May City.
- El Darb El Ahmar.
- Also, Ain Shams.
- El Basatin.
- Additionally, El Gamaliya.
- El Khalifa.
- El Marg.
- El Masara.
- Besides, El Matareya.
- El Mokattam.
- Rod El Farag.
- El Muski.
- New Cairo.
- El Weili.
- And, El Nozha.
- El Sharabiya.
- El Shorouk.
- And, El Sahil.
- El Salam.
- Old Cairo.
- El Sayeda Zeinab.
- And, El Tebbin.
- El Zaher.
- And, El Zawya El Hamra.
- And, Bab El Sharia.
- Dar El Salam.
- Hada’iq El Qobbah.
- And, Nasr City.
- Manshiyat Naser.
- Also, Qasr El Nil.