Sallum Protectorate

Sallum Protectorate

Sallum Protectorate is a unique area located in the governorate of Marsa Matrouh on the western Sudanese borders in Egypt. It was established as a protected area around the year 2010 AD to preserve natural resources and protect endangered species of sea turtles, sponges, coral reefs and others. The site also houses other threatened species of reptiles, mammals and more. It is assumed to be one of the significant areas containing diverse fish. In addition, there are some geographical features which include tidal zone, dunes of sand, salt depressions and cliffs.

Location of Sallum Protectorate

Sallum Nature Reserve is situated on the western border of Egypt with Libya, spanning some 383 square kilometres, mainly in the waters of the Gulf of Sallum. in the meantime, Sallum Protectorate is Egypt’s 28th natural protectorate. Still, it extends offshore into Mediterranean waters. Zaraniq on the North Sinai Mediterranean coast is, strictly speaking, the first on the Mediterranean, but it only covers the wetlands extending inland, not the Mediterranean proper.

The uniqueness of the Sallum Protectorate

The goal of launching the Sallum Protectorate is to preserve the natural resources in the area and protect endangered species such as sea turtles, sponges and prominent coral assemblies, in addition to the presence of approximately 160 local and migratory species, such as the North African bustard and lark species. More than 30 species of reptiles and amphibians, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the sea turtle Large-headed, curly, lizards and snakes, and more than 30 species of mammals and 57 species of large benthic organisms in Salloum Bay, such as molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, 55 marine species of commercial species, in addition to 10-12 thousand marine species, including 8,500 species of visible animal organisms and more than 1,300 A marine plant species, with an endemic rate of 28%, and this biodiversity represents from 8% to 9% of the total number of species in the world’s seas.

Sallum Protectorate is one of the wealthiest areas of fish biological diversity, and this biodiversity represents about 9% of the total species in the world’s seas. All of this was confirmed by environmental impact studies carried out by the Ministry of Environment over many years. The declaration of this reserve is one of the forms of addressing many ecological problems, such as soil degradation, coastal erosion, climate change, overuse of natural resources and loss of biological diversity. Sensitive as seagrass, shallow and mid-depth environments.

Recent studies conducted in the Sallum Protectorate have shown the great importance of its coastal and marine environment and the sensitivity of its habitats, including seagrass, fisheries, and sponges, in addition to the presence of five marine and 11 terrestrial endangered species. Even though the Gulf of Sallum is one of the most affluent areas for marine biodiversity in terms of habitats and species, it had previously been home to 89 indigenous species; it now hosts only 55. Declaring it a nature reserve is thus essential to protect the wildlife still surviving there.

The Environment Ministry has launched a thorough study of Sallum. The Sallum Protectorate hosts more than 160 migratory and local bird species, about 30 reptile and amphibian species and 10,000 to 12,000 marine species. Among the birds are bee-eaters, starlings and bustards. The park’s creation should encourage scientific research on biological diversity in Egypt.


Sallum (Arabic: السلوم, romanized: as-Sallūm Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: essælˈluːm various transliterations include El Salloum, As Sallum or Sollum) is a harbourside village or town in Egypt. It is along the Egypt/Libyan short north-south aligned coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the far northwest corner of Egypt. It is, geodesically, 8 km (5 mi) east of the border with Libya and 128 km (80 mi) from the notable port of Tobruk, Libya.

Sallum is mainly a Bedouin community of the families of merchants, fishermen and herdsmen. It is a key trading centre for the local Bedouin community. It has little tourist activity and few organized historical curiosities. It has a World War II Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery and is 7.5 km (4.7 mi) north of Halfaya Pass.

Sallum is on its pass, improved since World War II, and has become the main pass ascending the related ridge, which obstructs east-west trade. The ridge extends away from its northern part, east-facing sea cliffs, south by 55 km (34 mi), turning increasingly east. This escarpment is the Arabic: عقبة الكبير, romanized: ʿAqaba al-Kabīr, lit. ’Great Pass’, once called the Arabic: عقبة السلوم, romanized: ʿAqaba as-Sallūm, such as in the 12th century – a descriptor meaning graded (evened out) ascent, then making the name of the town. There are no other roadworthy passes nearby.

Sallum was a small ancient Roman port. Some Roman wells remain locally. Sometimes called Baranis, it should not be confused with the medieval-noted branch of the Berbers, the al-Baranis.

At its southern end, scattered homes mark out the end of the Northern coast of Egypt. Amenities include a post office and a National Bank of Egypt branch.


Early settlement

Local people are mentioned in some Roman accounts of Catabathmus Maior/Magnus (referring to the local, obstructive ridge to east-west land trade, Arabic: عقبة السلوم, romanized: ʿAqaba as-Sallūm, or more commonly today Arabic: عقبة الكبير, romanized: ʿAqaba al-Kabīr, lit. ’Great Pass’). It may have been Plynos Limen, and Tetrapyrgia mentioned in less context-clear early courses.

Sallum originated many eastward migrations to Egypt Eyalet and Bilad al-Sham. During the 19th century, one family migrated first to Tafilah in southern Jordan and thence to the region of Jaffa. They settled in the ancient village of Mulabbis and lived there for several generations until Petah Tikva, the first Zionist colony, was established in 1878.

Sovereignty and battles

Sallum was part of the Eyalet, then Vilayet of Tripolitania, 1551–1911, the year before its fall mainly to Italy. That year, during the Italo-Turkish War, an Anglo-Egyptian force took it over, relieving its garrison to prevent it from falling into Italian hands. When the border between Italian Libya and Egypt was settled by treaty in 1925, Sallum was left on the Egyptian side.

During the Senussi Campaign of World War I, Sallum was captured by the Senussi in November 1915 with Ottoman and German assistance. It was re-taken by the British in March 1916.

In December 1941, during Operation Crusader in World War II (and the two other operations affecting nearby Halfaya Pass), Sallum was the location of fighting between the British Empire and allied Commonwealth forces against German forces. The latter was retreating from gains they had made deeper into Egypt. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission established the Halfaya Sollum War Cemetery to inter over 2,000 soldiers who died in the region.

On July 21, 1977, Libya attacked Sallum, initiating the first clash in the Libyan-Egyptian War.

Solar eclipse

Sallum Protectorate was a destination in the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006, among expeditions.

Climate in Sallum Protectorate

Köppen-Geiger’s climate classification system classifies its climate as a hot desert-like almost all of Egypt (BWh). However, typically for the northern coast, Sallum Protectorate has its temperatures moderated by blowing winds from the Mediterranean Sea.