The Faiyum governorate enjoys year-round moderate weather. In addition, it is one of Egypt’s seven oases. Moreover, it homes several attractions of different eras – Pharaonic, Greco-Roman, Coptic and Islamic. The nature of this city is marvellous. The unspoiled land nature and deep history make it a place worth discovering! Faiyum is famous for dunes, palm trees, lakes and valleys. Also, wild animals and bird species take home in it.
- Location of Faiyum Governorate
- Ancient History of Faiyum
Location of Faiyum Governorate
Ancient History of Faiyum
There is some evidence that habitation began in the fifth millennium. The pharaoh of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC) established a Shedet (Medinet el-Fayyum) settlement. It was the most important centre of the cult of the crocodile god Sobek. The Greeks called it “Crocodile City” (Krokodeilópolis). The city worshipped a tamed sacred crocodile called Koine Petsuchos, “the Son of Soukhos”. The Petsoukhos lived in a particular temple pond and were fed by the priests with food provided by visitors.
Under the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the city was for a while called Ptolemais Euergétis (Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαῒς Εὐεργέτις). Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309–246 BC) renamed the city Arsinoë and the whole Nome after his sister-wife Arsinoe II (316–270 or 268). Later, she was revered after her death as part of the Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great, the kingdom’s official religion.
Under the Roman Empire, Arsinoë became part of Arcadia Aegypti. To distinguish it from other cities of the same name, they called it “Arsinoë in Arcadia”.
With the arrival of Christianity, Arsinoë became the seat of a bishopric, a suffragan of Oxyrhynchus, the capital of the province and the metropolitan see. Michel Le Quien gives the names of several bishops of Arsinoë, nearly all of them associated with one heresy or another.
Most Popular Attractions in Faiyum Governorate
Wadi El-Hitan Protected Area
The Valley of Wales is a UNESCO World Heritage site. According to theories, this valley was formed more than a million years ago; and, initially, was a sea with a wide variety of marine life. It has some fossils and skeletons of now extinct whales and rock formations. A Wadi El-Hitan museum is near Garet Gohannam northwest of Wadi El-Rayan, with hundreds of skeletons of now extinct whales.
Archaeologists think the Maidum pyramid is the first attempt to build a regular pyramid during Ancient Egypt. According to them, it is the first Egyptian pyramid to have a burial chamber. This pyramid is beautifully decorated with arch-shaped walls, built by Snefru, the father of Khufu. It was once an eight levels structure; now, only three levels have made it through the years.
In 1962 an Egyptian poet came to Tunis Village with his Swiss wife. They fell in love with it and decided to build a house and a pottery workshop. They tried to revive the pottery industry in Faiyum Governorate and teach pottery making to generations after. Not only that but supporting eco-tourism in the area.
Another scenic hiking option overlooking Magic Lake and a great place to camp; and marvel at the stars.
Magic Lake is one of the most beautiful lakes in Faiyum, overlooking dunes. Therefore, it is an excellent chance to freshen up after a long day of hiking and admire one of the most eye-catching sunsets.
Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area
Wadi El Rayan is a natural depression 42 km below sea level, only 2 hour drive from the Western Desert. Agricultural run-off water from Faiyum oasis created the two artificial lakes, joined by a channel and a waterfall. In addition, it is home to a breathtaking landscape, a comprehensive piece of desert with multiple dunes. It naturally enjoys a diversity of bird species; some are rare birds. Near extinction animals like Dorcas Gazelles, Ruppell’s Sand Fox, along with Fennec Fox shelter in it.
Qatrani Mountain is one of the most interesting, rich in fossils mountains in the Western Desert. It is a 350-meter high sandstone mountain and a significant landmark for travellers and hikers in Fayoum.
The Petrified Forest of Fayoum
Situated in the north of Lake Qaroun in Gabal Qatrani is the largest petrified forest in the world. It is home to 40 meters high trees that have survived in ossified form for thousands of years.
Qasr Qaroun started or ended the trek across the Western Desert to Bahareya Oasis using caravans during ancient times. The main temple of Qasr Qaroun is usually very dark from the inside. Astonishingly, on the 21st of December of each year, an astronomical miracle happens when the sun lightens the inside of the temple. They call this phenomenon “Wonder of the Sun.”
Qasr El-Sagha Temple
Qasr El-Sagha Temple is an unfinished one. It dates back to the Middle Kingdom. This temple has a beautiful view over Qaroun Lake and Qatrani Mountain.
Lake Quaroun locates 20 Km from Fayoum. It is one of the most important ancient natural lakes. Historically, the Ancient Egyptians practised fishing, water sports, and bird watching. Additionally, it homes several bird species, mammals, & reptiles and is not far from Qasr Qaroun & Qasr El-Sagha.
Karanis (Kom Oshim)
Once one of the largest Greco-Roman cities in Fayoum, built by the Ptolemies in the third century BC, currently, the city has two temples dedicated to the crocodile god Sobek and a Roman bath. It also has an interesting museum displaying a wide range of glassware, jewellery, and pottery.
Dimet El-Sebaa is situated 3 kilometres from Lake Qaroun. It was once used as a station for trade caravans heading towards the Western Desert. Besides, it has some Greek constructions, like the ruins of a small temple built from stone. Traces of walls and roads of the ancient city still exist. In 2012, two lion heads sculptures were found, which shows how many treasures in Egypt are still unexplored.
El-Nazla is the place to watch pottery manufacturing live and is a landmark.