Al-Qalyubia, also spelt Kalyubia, is a small muhafazah (governorate) just north of Cairo at the apex of the Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. It is bounded on the northeast by the Al-Sharqiyyah governorate and on the northwest by the Damietta Branch of the Nile. It is densely populated, and about three-fifths of its population relies on agriculture. The alluvial farmland is irrigated mainly by the Al-Tawfīqī Canal, which parallels the Nile, and by the Al-Ismāʿīliyyah Canal to the east. The principal crops are corn, cotton, wheat, and clover. There are also market gardens and orchards catering to the Cairo markets. The governorate’s mineral resources are phosphates and basalt, at Abu Zaabl, on the eastern fringe of the cultivated zone. Chemical plants also produce fertilizer, sulfuric acid, oleum, and aerosols. The principal towns are Banhā, the capital of the muḥāfaẓah, and Qalyūb. At Musṭurud, an oil refinery is located on the Suez-Mediterranean oil pipeline.
The name of the Qalubiyya governorate emanated from Qalyub city in it. Qalyub is derived from Calliope, an ancient Greek goddess, the Muse of epic poetry.
Banha and several other settlements blend into the neighbouring Cairo Governorate; as a result, parts of Qalyubia (particularly Shubra El Kheima) are generally considered to form part of the Greater Cairo metropolitan area (along with Cairo Governorate, Giza city and 6th October city).
The governorate is divided into the following municipal divisions for administrative purposes, with a total estimated population as of July 2017 of 5,647,716. There is a markaz and a kism with the same name.
According to population estimates, in 2015, most residents in the governorate lived in rural areas, with an urbanization rate of only 44.7%. Out of an estimated 5,105,972 people residing in the governorate, 2,825,045 people lived in rural areas instead of only 2,280,927 in urban areas.
The cities in the Qalyubia Governorate are:
- Shibin El Qanater
- Shubra El Kheima
- El Qanater El Khayreya
- Kafr Shukr
- Obour City
According to the Egyptian Governing Authority for Investment and Free Zones (GAFI), in affiliation with the Ministry of Investment (MOI), the following industrial zones are located in this governorate:
- Al Shorouk
- Al Safa
- Al Aqrasha
- (New urban community) Al Obour industrial zone
Qalyubia is known for its agricultural production of crops, fruits and vegetables. The most important of these crops include maize, cotton, wheat, citrus fruits, bananas, oranges and apricots. Qalyubia is also the leading Egyptian governorate in the production of poultry and eggs.
Programs and projects
In 1981, the Basic Village Service Program (BVS) had several water projects in the Qalyubia Governorate.
In a program that began on August 28, 2012 (through 2018), the European Union invested 40 million Euros in upgrading informal areas’ infrastructure in the Qalyubia Governorate.