The Complex Temple of Dendera is one of the best-preserved temple complexes in Egypt. The whole complex covers some 40,000 square meters and a hefty mud brick enclosed wall surrounds it. This area was used as the sixth Nome of Upper Egypt, south of Abydos.
Location of Dendera Temples
Dendera Temple complex is located 7 km from Qena, and about 2.5 kilometers south-east of Dendera, Qena Governorate, Egypt.
History of the complex
The temple complex displays a scene of the long history of Egypt. This amazing complex reveals a lot about this history. When studying the history of this complex, we can find that the first building dates back to the Ancient Egyptian period, and that the Greek, and Roman rulers continued it. There is evidence of temples and other structures that date back all the way to 2500 BCE. Pharaoh Pepi I (ca. 2250 BC) built on this site and evidence exists of a temple in the Eighteenth Dynasty (ca 1500 BC). However, the earliest extant building in this compound which dates back to native pharaohs _ the Mammisi which was raised by Nectanebo II (360–343 BC).
The appearance of Christianity in Egypt has its influence on the temples in Dendera, as well. There was also a Coptic Christian church on the premises near the Temple of Birth at one point. Ptolemy XII built the main temple and nearly Queen Cleopatra VII completed it, around 54 to 20 BCE.
Features of the Complex in Dendera
The Dendera Temple complex has many features in it. These features include the following temples and elements:
- Roman Mammisi
- Christian Basilica
- Hathor temple (the main temple)
- Temple of the birth of Isis
- Sacred Lake
- Barque shrine
- Gateways of Domitian and Trajan
- The Roman Kiosk