Ramses II is the third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt. His reign was the second-longest in Egyptian history from 1279–1213 BC. Historians regard this pharaoh as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful one of the New Kingdom. Certainly, the New Kingdom was the most powerful period of Ancient Egypt. His successors and later Egyptians called him the “Great Ancestor”. In addition to his wars with the Hittites and Libyans, Ramses II was a great reformer. Undoubtedly, the works of this pharaoh refer strongly to his greatness. He put extensive building strategies and established many temples and colossal statues all over Egypt.
Battles Led By Ramses II
Ramses II – the famous Egyptian pharaoh of the XIX dynasty, the son of the pharaoh Seti I. The first five years of his reign, he devoted to preparing Egypt for a big war in Asia – in particular, centralization under the rule of the king of temple riches. In 1286 BC. e. he made a campaign in Phenicia, and the next year moved on to an even larger campaign. The poem of the scribe Pentaura describes this campaign in detail.
Pharaoh decided to capture the Kadesh fortress. By then, his advisors and spies informed him that the troops of the enemy of the Egyptians, the Hittite king Muwatalli II, had settled north of Kadesh. Furthermore, they made him sure that the Hittite king fears facing him. Pharaoh, believing this, crossed to the right bank of the Orontes, where the fortress stood, with only one of the four columns of his army.
However, in reality, the main forces of the Hittites were in Kadesh. As a result, when the second Egyptian column began to cross the river, the Hittite army surprisingly attracted it. Obviously, the Ancient Egyptian armies couldn’t expect it. Moreover, the enemy forces surrounded Pharaoh Ramses II but he escaped captivity only thanks to his courage, as well as the timely approach of reinforcements. On the other side, the Hittites suffered huge losses, the Egyptians were victorious. Nevertheless, the Hittites had large forces in Kadesh, which Ramses was never able to take. The campaign of 1285 ended with the retreat of the Egyptians, who lost South Syria.
Till the end of the 1270 B.C. Ramses II fought in Palestine, southern Syria, Phenicia. The protracted war began to weigh on the Hittites, who fought on other fronts: for control over the western part of Asia Minor, as well as with Assyria for influence in northwestern Mesopotamia.