Pharaoh Tutankhamun is one of the most majestic rulers in ancient Egypt. He ruled from about 1332-1323 BC; he is from the XVIII dynasty in the New Kingdom. In 1922 Howard Carter (English archaeologist) discovered the tomb of the pharaoh. Carter found this tomb in the Valley of the Kings; it stood intact until this time. The discovery became a huge legendary sensation, and people’s interest in the history of Ancient Egypt increased significantly. The golden mask of Tutankhamun is in the Cairo Museum. The deaths of the members of the 1922 expedition are still mystical. and there is such a thing as “the curse of the pharaohs.”
There is no reliable data that would indicate the very origin of the pharaoh, there is only some confirmation of his existence before the time of coronation, and such is the stone with the words: “beloved son of the pharaoh from his flesh Tutankhaton.” Scientists suggest such versions: first – Tutankhamun was the son of Pharaoh Akhenaten. Second – he was the son of Smenkhkar, son-in-law, brother or son of Akhenaten. In 2007-2009, scientists carried DNA research, and scientists concluded that Tutankhamun was the son of a mummy of one of the tombs, where Akhenaten and the princess were, with a new name from another tomb.
At birth, he received the name Tutankhaton; after his father’s death and in the second year of his reign, he carried the title Tutankhamun. His wife is Queen Ankhesenpaaton, who was one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. In their marriage, two deceased daughters rest in the tomb of Tutankhamun.
After Akhenaten died, the reign passed to Smenkhkara and a nameless queen, who could have been regent under little Tutankhamen. After accession to the throne at ten years, Tutankhamun stayed with his court in Akhetaton for three years.
Tutankhamun called himself the primary and direct heir of Amenhotep III, who was his grandfather. In the second year of his reign, he and his wife changed their real names in honour of Amun. One such word meant “Satisfying the Gods.” During the reign of Tutankhamun, Egyptians especially intensively restored the sanctuaries abandoned during the reign of Akhenaten. They were in Egypt, in Kush and Kawa. After some time, Horemheb destroyed all the cartouches of Tutankhamun and appropriated the monuments for himself.
Tutankhamun appropriated privileges to priests, singers, and temple servants. He gave orders to manufacture boats for ceremonies made from the finest cedar and covered with gold. He was very docile, and officials and priests took advantage of this, controlling him. Ey was his regent.
Moving to Memphis
After Tutankhamun left Akhetaton, he moved to Memphis and settled there. Sometimes he visited the southern capital and took part in the festival of Amun, whom he praised, and many gods. In the 9th year of the government of Tutankhamun, the Temple of the Sun took over the vineyards. The drawings of the Sun and Akhenaten remained intact, and in the preserved personal records, the pharaoh calls himself “the son of Aton”.
After Tutankhamun chose Memphis as his capital, nobles built many tombs in the Sakkara necropolis. The tomb of the military commander Horemheb, the treasurer and architect Maya, are famous for their delightful and elegant decoration. In Thebes, the tomb of the nobleman Amenhotep Khevi, who was at that time the royal governor of Nubia, is perfectly preserved.
In South Nubia, he completed the vast complex of the temple of Amenhotep III, the temple of Amun in Kawa was installed, and the sanctuary of Tutankhamun in Faras. On the instructions of Tutankhamun, the ancient Egyptians completed the colonnade of Amenhotep in the Luxor temple and also built the temple in Giza. His funeral temple, insanely beautifully decorated with polychrome sandstone colossi, was located not far from Medinet Habu.
During the reign of Tutankhamun, the future pharaoh Horemheb won his victory in Syria, in connection, a royal ship arrived in Karnak, in a cage of which there was a Syrian. During his reign, there were very successful hostilities in Nubia and on behalf of the pharaoh, he claimed he filled the temples from his war booty. The inscription on the tomb of Amenhotep (governor of Nubia) indicates that some Syrian tribes paid tribute regularly. One of the main differences in the reign of Pharaoh Tutankhamun was the rejection of Atonism.
Historians considered Tutankhamun as a minor ruler, almost until the twentieth century. It is regarded as one of the most significant events in the history of Egypt when archaeologists found the tomb of Tutankhamun. It was Howard Carter. Surprisingly, the tomb robbers did not touch it. However, archaeologists found traces of theft, but someone became a hindrance to the robbers and could not carry out the work they had begun), which helped them become very famous Tutankhamun in our time. The tomb is small compared to other XIII dynasties, so it was initially unintended for the pharaoh.
Ancient Egyptians built another tomb for him. They did not manage to finish before the moment of his death. But they very well equipped it when the ruler died. Howard Carter found many things used for burial in Tutankhamun’s tomb: Utensils, an armchair, a bed, lamps, jewellery and much more. The Egyptian museum displayed this collection. However, the government decided to move the treasuries to the Grand Egyptian Museum at Giza. The latter museum opens in 2021.
How did Tutankhamun Die?
He died at the age of 19 and was buried in the Valley of the Kings. There are several possible scenarios for his death. In the first version, historians assume that the regent, Eye, directed the murder, who soon after the end of Tutankhamun took his place. The next version thinks that he died from a head injury. Later, scientists refuted it thanks to the computed tomography, where they found no damages. A small gap in the skull only suggests that it appeared due to Tutankhamun’s mummification.
In 2010, scientists suggested he could have died from a severe molar disease as they detected the virus through DNA testing. This version is very plausible because archaeologists found drugs in the tomb to treat this disease. Another possible death option is falling from a chariot during the hunting season because the pharaoh’s death occurred in Egypt during the hunting season. The fifth version, which the forensic doctors took out, that someone killed him using a weapon similar to an axe.
Scientific studies have shown Tutankhamun’s family suffered from various genetic diseases. The death of Tutankhamun was sudden. He did not leave behind heirs who could take his place, which led to great difficulties. The period that began after his death is somewhat unclear, and it was almost impossible to study it. There are only some assumptions about who became the next ruler. The official version is that power passed to Ay and after him to Horemheb. None of these rulers left behind an heir, which led to the end of the 18th Dynasty.