ancient Egyptian deities

Ancient Egyptian Deities

Studying ancient Egyptian beliefs is an exciting part of the knowledge one can add to the intellect. An enormous number of ancient Egyptian deities accompanied by their myths formed the core of these beliefs. Therefore, we can define the Ancient Egyptian Deities as those gods and goddesses whom the Ancient Egyptians worshipped. Additionally, these gods’ beliefs and rituals founded the ancient Egyptian religion, emerged sometime in prehistory.

Also, Egypt’s natural surroundings and events presumably influenced Ancient Egyptian mythology. Thus, we can notice that these deities represented natural forces and phenomena. Therefore, the Egyptians supported and appeased them through offerings and rituals. Accordingly, the offerings aimed at keeping the divine order, Maat, functioning.

Pharaoh Role in Religion

The ancient Egyptian pharaoh played a vital role in religion. Early signs prove that the pharaoh started performing this role immediately after the foundation of the Egyptian state. Historically, the pharaoh started playing this role around 3100 BC. The pharaoh began to control the authority to perform the rituals by then. Indeed, among these rituals was giving offerings to gods in their temples. Thus, the pharaohs hold the task to be the intermediate between people and those gods presenting offerings and fulfilling rituals. Generally, the pharaoh was the god’s representative and son on Earth.

Number of Ancient Egyptian Deities

A significant number of deities, 2800 gods, formed the ancient Egyptian religion. Some of these deities played an essential role in the universe, while others played a minor role. Herein, we give an idea about the most prominent gods in ancient Egypt, according to the following order:

Goddesses in Ancient Egypt

  1. Isis.
  2. Amentet.
  3. Ammit.
  4. Anput.
  5. Anat.
  6. Anuket (Anukis).
  7. Bast.
  8. Bat.
  9. Hathor.
  10. Hatmehyt.
  11. Hededet.
  12. Hemsut.
  13. Heqet.
  14. Also, Hesat.
  15. Iabet.
  16. Kauket.
  17. Kebechet.
  18. Maat.
  19. Menhet (Menhit).
  20. Meretseger.
  21. Meskhenet.
  22. Mut.
  23. Naunet.
  24. Nehmetawy.
  25. Also, Nekhbet.
  26. Neith.
  27. Nephthys.
  28. Nut.
  29. Qadesh.
  30. Renenutet.
  31. Renpet.
  32. Satet (Satis).
  33. Sekhmet.
  34. Also, Seshat.
  35. Serqet (Selkit).
  36. Sopdet (Sothis).
  37. Taweret.
  38. Tayet.
  39. Tefnut.
  40. Tjenenet.
  41. Wadjet.
  42. Besides, Weret-hekau

Goddess Amunet

Amunet is one of the primordial goddesses from the Ancient Egyptian religion. This fascinating goddess plays a central role in the Egyptian creation myth. However, over time, we lost the stories of Amunet in the drift of history. Subsequently, another goddess replaced her altogether.

Goddess Anuket

The ancient Egyptians worshipped the Egyptian goddess Anuket as the personification of the Nile River. People referred to her as the “Nourisher of the Fields”. Moreover, they also saw her as the deity who would protect women during childbirth.

Goddess Bastet

Ancient Egyptians considered Goddess Bastet the protector of females, home, domesticity, cats, pleasure and good health. She protected households against evil spirits and diseases that may affect women or children. Like other ancient deities, the goddess also had an essential role in the afterlife.

Goddess Bat

Ancient Egyptians revered Goddess Bat as the deity of fertility. The first evidence of Bat’s worship originates from the earliest records of the religious practices in ancient Egypt.

Most importantly, Egyptian mythology revered her as the cow goddess. Symbols depict her with a human face with cow ears and horns or a woman. As was the situation with other Egyptian gods, Bat’s identity subsumed with another goddess later. Legends associate Bat with Upper Egypt and the Milky Way galaxy.

Goddess Hathor

According to the ancient Egyptian religion, Goddess Hathor was one principal goddess. Sacredly, she was the goddess of sky, music, dance, joy, love, sexuality and maternal care. In addition, she was the heavenly mother of Horus and Ra.

Goddess Isis

Goddess Isis is one of the famous goddesses in ancient Egypt. Religiously, she was the goddess of fertility, motherhood, magic, death, healing and rebirth. Undoubtedly, this goddess came from a divine family. According to her family origins, Isis was the first daughter of Geb (Earth) and Nut (deity of the sky). Besides, she was the wife of her brother Osiris and gave birth to the god Horus.

Goddess Maat

Maat or Maʽat refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. In ancient Egyptian religion, Maat also spelt Mayet as the personification of truth, justice, and the cosmic order. The daughter of the sun god Re, she was associated with Thoth, god of wisdom. Maat was also the goddess who personified the previously mentioned concepts and regulated the stars, seasons. Also, Maat handled the actions of mortals and the deities who had brought order from chaos at the creation moment. Her ideological opposite was Isfet (Egyptian jzft), which meant injustice, chaos, violence, or evil.

Goddess Mut

Ancient Egyptians worshipped the deity Mut as a mother goddess. According to the ancient Egyptian language, her literal name translation is mother. Like other goddesses, the attributes associated with Mut evolved and diversified over the thousand years of ancient Egyptian culture.

Goddess Nekhbet

Nekhbet is a local goddess from the early predynastic era in ancient mythology. The ancient Egyptians named this goddess “the patron of the city of Nekheb” – El Kab. Subsequently, she became the patron of Upper Egypt and the second patron of unified Ancient Egypt. In Egyptian religion, people also viewed Nekhbet as the protector of all the rulers of Upper Egypt. The bird vulture represented the mighty goddess.

Goddess Nephthys

Ancient Egyptian culture recognises Nephthys, also known as Nebet-Het, as a powerful goddess. She belonged to the Great Ennead of Heliopolis from Egyptian mythology. The myths recognise Nephthys as the daughter of god Geb and goddess Nut. Also, ancient Egyptian mythology pairs the goddess herself with Isis, her sister, in funerary rites.

Goddess Nut

Nut, in Egyptian religion, a goddess of the sky, vault of the heavens, often depicted as a woman arched over the Earth god Geb. Most cultures of regions with rain personify the sky as masculine, the rain being the seed that fructifies Mother Earth. In Egypt, however, rain plays no role in fertility; all the good water is on the Earth (from the Nile River).

Goddess Sekhmet

The goddess Sekhmet is one of the most significant goddesses of Ancient Egypt. The goddess usually represents a leonine deity. The symbol depicts her as a woman with the head of a lion. Her name translates to “Powerful.” Moreover, it translates as “The Female Powerful One.”

One can find the history of Ancient Egypt sprinkled with several lores of the god Ra. Sekhmet was the daughter of Ra. She is not only a warrior goddess but is also the goddess of healing. The pharaohs revered Sekhmet as their protector since the goddess led the kings in matters of warfare.

Goddess Tefnut

Tefnut is an Egyptian deity from the Ancient Egyptian religion of moist air, moisture, dew drops and rain. She was one of the most prominent goddesses from the ancient faith and associated with several other important deities. According to ancient texts, goddess Tefnut was the sister and consort of the air god Shu. Moreover, she is the mother of Geb (father of snakes) and Nut (goddess of the sky).

Goddess Wadjet

Ancient Egyptians worshipped goddess Wadjet as the cobra goddess of ancient times. Symbols often depicted her as a cobra wrapped around a papyrus stem. The Greek world knew the goddess as Uto or Buto. Moreover, people from the city of Dep hailed the goddess as their local deity. This place later became a part of the city named by the Egyptians as Per-Wadjet or House of Wadjet. The Greeks referred to this city as Buto, now called Desouk. People considered it a vital site in prehistoric Egypt, and it contributed to the cultural developments of the Paleolithic.

Ancient Egyptian Gods

  1. Amun of Luxor.
  2. Ahy.
  3. Am-heh.
  4. Andjety.
  5. Anhur(Onuris).
  6. Anubis.
  7. Apep (Apophis).
  8. Aten.
  9. Atum.
  10. Also, Banebdjed.
  11. Bes.
  12. Geb.
  13. Hapi.
  14. Heka (Hike).
  15. Also, Heryshef.
  16. Horus.
  17. Horus the Elder.
  18. Khentykhem.
  19. Horus Behedet.
  20. Horus, son of Isis.
  21. Horakhty.
  22. Horemakhet.
  23. Also, Hu.
  24. Imiut.
  25. Khentiamentiu.
  26. Khepri (Kheper).
  27. Also, Kherty (Cherti).
  28. KhonsuKhnum.
  29. Kuk.
  30. Maahes (Mihos).
  31. Maahaf.
  32. And, Min.
  33. Montu.
  34. Nefertum.
  35. Nun.
  36. Osiris.
  37. Ptah.
  38. Ra.
  39. Reshep.
  40. Sahu.
  41. Serapis (Sarapis)
  42. And, Sepa.
  43. Set.
  44. Shai.
  45. Also, Shu.
  46. Sia.
  47. Sobek.
  48. And, Sokar.
  49. Sopdu (Sopedu).
  50. Thoth.
  51. Besides, Wepwawet.

God Amun

God Amun is a deity in Egyptian mythology who became one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt. Amun’s name means “The Invisible.” his name also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen; sometimes, Imen.

The ancient Egyptians depicted the god Amun in various shapes. Likewise, Amun appeared in many forms. Ancient Egyptians described Amun as a human figure, a man with a ram-head and a frog. Also, they showed him as a man with a frog-head, a ram and a goose. Besides, he looked like a man wearing an ostrich plumed crown and a goose.

God Anubis

The god of death, Anubis, is one of the most powerful deities in the Ancient Egyptian pantheon. Ancient texts refer to him as the god of mummification, embalming, cemetery, tombs, the afterlife and the underworld. His depiction as a canine or a man with a wolf’s head is a famous symbol in pop culture.

God Aten

The history of god Aten and his religion is one of the most controversial and exciting aspects of ancient Egypt. Old scripts also refer to god Aten as Aton, Atony or Itn. There are also several interesting aspects to the story of god Aten, which intermingled with Pharaoh Akhenaten.

God Bes

Bes, a minor god of ancient Egypt, represented as a dwarf with a large head, goggle eyes, protruding tongue, bowlegs, bushy tail, and usually a crown of feathers. This ancient Egyptian god may have been a Middle Kingdom import from Nubia or Somalia, and his cult did not become widespread until the New Kingdom. Bes ( also spelt as Bisu), together with his feminine counterpart Beset, is an ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households, mothers, children, and childbirth.

God Geb

Synonymously, ancient Egyptians called Geb the Father of Snakes. Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth. He was also a mythological member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. Myths from ancient Egypt state that Geb’s laughter created earthquakes and allowed crops to grow. Overall, Geb was the god of Earth, vegetation, fertility, earthquakes and snakes.

God Hapi

The Ancient Egyptian Religion revered the deity Hapi, the god of the annual flooding of the Nile, highly. Hapi was one of the most popular gods in ancient Egypt. Every year the Nile River flooded and deposited dark and rich soil on the banks of the river. This soil was highly fertile and allowed the crops of Egypt to flourish. One could say that the annual flooding of Egypt sustained the entire country.

God Horus

God Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was the God of the Kingdom, the sky, and the God of Living. Also, Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris, as well.

God Min

Min (Egyptian mnw) cult originated in the predynastic period (4th millennium BCE). In ancient Egyptian religion, Min was a god of fertility and harvest, the embodiment of the masculine principle; ancient Egyptians worshipped him as the Lord of the Eastern Desert. His cult was most robust in Coptos and Akhmīm (Panopolis). Wherein his honour, great festivals were held celebrating his coming forth, with public processions and presentation of offerings. The lettuce was his sacred plant. Ancient Egyptian depicted him in many different forms. However, ancients most often represented this deity in male human form, shown with a phallus erect which he holds in his right hand and an upheld left arm holding a flail.

God Osiris

Osiris is one of the most revered deities in the history of Ancient Egypt. He is the god of agriculture, fertility, the dead, life, resurrection and vegetation. In general, the imagery used for the god shows him as a green-skinned deity with a king’s beard. Osiris has mummy-wrapped legs partially, and he wears a distinctive Atef crown. Also, the god holds a symbolic crook and flail. Ancient Egyptians firstly associated Osiris with mummy wraps.

God Ptah

Ptah is an ancient Egyptian deity, a creator god and patron of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the husband of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertem. Ancient Egyptians also regarded God Ptah as the father of the sage Imhotep.

God Ra

One of the most powerful gods from the ancient legends, God Ra, is an ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. During the Fifth Dynasty, Ra became one of the most important gods in Egyptian culture. People identified him with the noon-day sun. According to tales, Ra ruled the world: the Earth, the sky and the underworld. Indeed, Ra was the supreme god of the sun, kings, order and the atmosphere.

God Set

Noteworthy that Seth and Suetekh are synonyms to Set. God Set represents the Egyptian deity of war, chaos and storms in the ancient Egyptian methodology. He was the brother of OsirisIsis and Horus the Elder. Set was also the uncle of Horus the Younger and the brother-husband to Nephthys. In addition, Goddess Tawaret, a hippo-headed deity who presided over fertility and childbirth, was a consort of Set.

God Sobek

The Ancient Egyptian culture has strong ties with the magnificent Nile River. The culture revolved around the inundations of the river and the fertility it provided. Not surprisingly, this idea manifested itself in the Egyptian religion by taking the form of god Sobek himself.

God Thoth

Thoth was one of the most important gods of Ancient Egypt. He was the god of writing, wisdom, magic and the moon. Various versions of the origin of Thoth sprinkle the course of history. Some stories claim that this god created himself. However, others argue that he originates from the seed of Horus and that he came from the forehead of Set. People often saw Thoth as the son of the two gods, respectively representing order and chaos. Thus, they chose him also the god of equilibrium.

1 thought on “Ancient Egyptian Deities

  1. Egypt, has always been home to a lot many gods and goddesses. Some of their names can’t even be pronounced properly and some are quite easy to do so. But one thing is for certain. They are still many of them who are worshiped and thought to be extremely holy. Saying anything against them was and is considered sacrilege. So read on and try your phonetic skills.

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