Sohag Governorate is one of the 28 governorates of Egypt. It is situated in the southern area of Upper Egypt and encompasses a long stretch of the Nile Valley. In 1960, its capital came the city of Sohag. Before 1960, the capital was the city of Girga, and the name of the governorate was Girga, too.
- Location of Sohag Governorate
- History of the governorate
- Administrative Division of Sohag governorate
- Attractions in Sohag Governorate
- The temple of Osiris
- Temple of Atribis
- Hawawish Cemetery
- Salamoni Cemetery
- Wadi Bir Al-Ain
- Nagaa El-Sheikh Hamad
- Ramses II Temple of Abydos
- Kom Al-Sultan
- Beit Khallaf
- Shunet El Zebib
- Tombs of Om Al-Jaab
Location of Sohag Governorate
Sohag Governorate extends 125 km along the Nile River and is 467 km away from Cairo. Assiut governorate borders it in the north and Qena governorate in the south. Also, it neighbours Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar (Red Sea) governorate in the east and the New Valley governorate in the west.
History of the governorate
Sohag is one of the 27 governorates of Egypt. This Upper-Egyptian governorate has a deep-rooted history and heritage, like all the towns in the Nile Valley. The history of Sohag extends as long back as the first signs of civilisation in Egypt. Indeed, we can get a lot about the history of this governorate from the remaining Ancient Egyptian monuments. Of course, a significant portion of these monuments exists in Abydos.
During the first four ancient Egyptian dynasties, Abydos was the capital of Egypt. Also, the ancient city of El-Tina, north of Abydos, was the home and headquarters of Narmer. According to the history of Egypt, Narmer was the first pharaoh to unify the country in about 3100 BC.
Later, Muhammad Ali, who started ruling Egypt in 1805, divided the country into directorates. Consequently, Girga, or Upper Egypt, was one of these directorates. This directorate had several cities, including Mishta, in the north and Esna, in the south. At the same time, Sohag appeared as a village in this directorate.
According to the following demonstrative division in 1960, Girga lost a significant portion of its southern area. Moreover, they moved its capital to Sohag Village. Later, Sohag became a modern city with the second most prominent area in this governorate.
Administrative Division of Sohag governorate
Sohag governorate consists of the following 11 administrative divisions:
- El-Balyana (The most southern city).
- Sohag (The capital).
- Tima (The most northern city).
- El-Mansha (The biggest city in terms of area).
- Dar El-Salam.
- Also, Sakulta.
The above central cities (Markazes) have 51 rural local units, with subordinated 213 villages. In terms of area, these cities or Markazes are small except for El-Mansha. However, Sohag City comes second.
Akhmim is a city in the Sohag Governorate of Upper Egypt. Referred to by the ancient Greeks as Khemmis or Chemmis and Panopolis, it stands on the east bank of the Nile, four miles (6.4 km) to the northeast of Sohag.
Attractions in Sohag Governorate
Abydos Temple Complex
The Abydos Temple Complex stands in Abydos Village, in the modern Egyptian town Al-Balyana, south of Sohag governorate. It lies about 11 kilometres west of the Nile River at a latitude of 26° 10′ N. During ancient Egypt, Abydos was the capital of the eighth Nome.
The temple of Osiris
The history of the construction of the most important Pharaonic funerary temples in the region of Abydos in Sohag in Egypt and what is the secret of its builders in the form of tombs of the Valley of the Kings and statues and discoveries tell us about the culture of the Pharaonic civilisation.
Located behind the Temple of King Sethi I, which is considered symbolic, he was interested in completing its construction of King Sethi I, “Egyptian Pharaohs kings”, and found himself under the grandson Merenptah.
Its design resembles the design of the Tombs of the Kings Pharaohs of the New Kingdom in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. It has a long passage decorated with colourful drawings of the scenes of the gods and parts of the texts of the Book of the Dead. Its beauty and colours still preserve it, and the fundamental part of the Osirion is the delicate symbolic chamber, which is a room of red granite. It has an artificial lake surrounded by water for years and an artificial canal.
Temple of Atribis
The history of the construction of the most important pharaonic temples in the resort of Sheikh Hamad in Sohag Egypt and what are the secrets of the structure of the temple and Tombs of the Pharaoh’s Queens and statues were discovered in the civilisation of ancient Egypt.
The city of Atribis is located about 7 km west of Sohag and was named Iyania Atribis. In ancient Egypt, it was even called a castle raised and named in Coptic Atribis, which covers an area of 35 acres, which is a hill and piles of antiquities and contains two temples, the first of which dates back to the time of Ptolemy XII, which the Roman emperors completed.
The second temple was erected by King Psametic of the 26th dynasty between “588-568 BC.” and was rebuilt by Ptolemy X. There is a chapel for Ptolemy X and Cleopatra. The area contains many carved tombs in the mountain, and from the same period, some of them were looted, such as the cemetery of the zodiac, and the Copts used many of its stones in the construction of some Coptic monasteries.
Especially the nearby white monastery to the north, and since 1983 the Antiquities Authority has discovered the Temple of Ptolemy, and the temple retains most of its walls and some columns. The area is an open museum due to its abundance of monuments.
The governorate also paved the road leading to the archaeological area in preparation for its status as a noteworthy tourist attraction.
The history and secrets of the most important ancient cities of Sohag in Egypt and which temples and pharaonic statues were discovered there tell us about the life of the kings of ancient Egypt.
In an ancient city known as The City or Permian, there are remains of ancient temples where the tallest statue of an Egyptian queen is discovered 11 meters long and made of limestone. It is the centre of worship of God Min, the master of the eastern desert.
The city of Akhmim was the capital of the ninth region of Upper Egypt until the end of the Roman era. It occupied a prominent position among the upper areas of Egypt for its important strategic location.
The history and secrets of the ancient Pharaonic tombs in the mountain are from Sohag of Egypt, and which tombs carved into the mountain have been discovered from the mummy of the ancient Pharaohs.
Near the town of Akhmim, there are several cemeteries on the edge of the plateau. This cemetery dates from the time of the Old and Middle Kingdoms. There are tombs carved into the rock, and on its walls, inscriptions, and some of them have colourful designs on a layer of slurry.
The history of the oldest capitals of the ancient Egyptian civilisation during the reign of the Ptolemaic, the city of El-Monsha’a in Sohag and which monuments and pharaonic tombs were found and more.
Established in the time of Ptolemy I, it was the capital of Upper Egypt in Greek times and the second capital of Egypt after Alexandria during the reign of the Ptolemaic.
History and secrets of the most important Pharaonic Monuments of Sohag in Egypt, information about the most important tombs of the kings and nobles of the ancient Egyptian civilisation, the Temple of King Tutankhamun and other archaeological finds.
Located on the east side of the desert, the Salamoni Mountains contained a vast cemetery and most of the tombs in this area date back to the early days of the Old Kingdom. They were also used in the late Ptolemaic and Roman periods.
Few of these tombs contain some of the inscriptions on their walls, in which Egyptian art mixes with Greek art. At the top of the mountain, there is a small rocky temple dating back to the reign of King Tutankhamun, which was dedicated to the worship of the god of fertility, the god Min, the god of Akhmim, as well as Isis, the mother of God Horus.
Wadi Bir Al-Ain
The history and secrets of the most important tourist attractions, the historical and archaeological valley of Sohag in Egypt, believed to have sacred water that helps women have children and get married quickly and more.
This valley is located between Mount Jabal Al-Hawaweesh and Mount Jabal Al-Salamoni. The area has been covered with large rocks and has facilitated the transit of walkers, camels and donkeys. There is a belief among the area inhabitants that if they drink from these holy waters, it will help them have children.
On the rock of this site are hunting scenes and some hieratic inscriptions.
Nagaa El-Sheikh Hamad
The most important pharaonic monuments in The Elders of Sohag Egypt, valuable information about the tombs and temples of the pharaohs discovered in the mountainous region of the life of the kings of ancient Egypt.
The old name was Bakhet, which means East Edfu, and the village of Nagaa Al-Najjar is located on the east bank of the Nile about 45 km south of the city of Sohag above the mountain “Summit”.
The west side of the village of Nagaa al-Sheikh is located directly on the edge of the rocky slope, where a cemetery is carved to the west of the cemetery. There are other tombs carved into the rock but not engraved. Others above the rocky slope, which is mainly from the Old Kingdom, 20 meters from the east and the entrance to the cemetery is the mouth of the valley, which has a wide opening heading towards the desert and is known as the old cemetery next to the village of Nagaa El-Sheikh in the village of Nagaa Al-Deir, some of which are still open.
For now, there is a cemetery that has grown, and there are two Ramesside-era tombs several kilometres south of Nagaa Al-Sheikh. There are ruins of the temple of Ramses II, which was rebuilt by his son Merenptah.
Ramses II Temple of Abydos
The most important ancient funerary temples of the ancient Egyptian civilisation in Sohag, Egypt, the history and secrets of the construction of The Temple of Abydos and a complete description of the temple from the inside and the statues and drawings it contains.
Although this great temple has unfortunately poorly been damaged, it deserves a special visit. It is easily accessible from the road that enters the agriculture that comes from the statues of Memnon and the port on the west bank of the Nile. However, those who have visited the monastery can easily see this temple through the passage road of the plateau of Sheikh Abd El-Gurna.
The temple of Ramses is located north of his father’s temple, Seti I.
The temple was built at the beginning of the reign of King Ramses II. Although many parts of it were destroyed and the defect of the first building and the earlier courtyard, it is still characterised by its statues and columns. It is smaller than the first temple of Sethi, but it is considered one of the most important funerary temples.
It is known to have the giant statue ever carved by artists in Egypt, but unfortunately, it was broken by an earthquake in ancient times.
The entire temple is surrounded by a brick wall with an area, many of which occupy secondary buildings and warehouses.
The walls are limestone, sandstone columns, granite doors in red, black and grey, an alabaster chapel, and temple inscriptions are precise and discreet in bright colours.
One of the most prominent features of the inscriptions on the temple walls is a scene from the Battle of Kadesh, which was shown by the Egyptians and recitals, in which Ramses II triumphed over them.
On the north tower, when we look east, we find on the left a list of eighteen cities occupied by Ramses in the next one and a scene of the prisoners as they are led to the gods and on the south, the scenes of the campaign he launched against the Hittites.
The first courtyard is destroyed, with two rows of columns on the south side and seems to have been connected to the ruins of a palace to the south. The entrance to this courtyard on the west side to find before us the remnants of the largest of Egyptian statues.
The second courtyard we now enter is preserved as the first, although it is also destroyed. On the north and south sides, there were two rows of round columns, to the east a row of square columns with statues of Osiris on it, and to the west a balcony with a row of columns Osirian Square overlooking the courtyard, and behind it a row of columns with crowns in the shape of papyrus buds. The statues of Osiris, of which only four remain in each row, represent Ramses II.
The temple’s remains indicate that its architectural design is no different from the design of the traditional Egyptian temple, which includes an open courtyard or two. The balcony and finally, The Hypostyle Hall room and Chapel, and the drawings of the appearances of worship and the God of the Nile and the cultivated land depicted by a woman were engraved on its walls.
The Ramesseum is the majestic funerary temple of Ramses II west of Thebes. It is one of the most important funerary temples, and it is one of the most famous monuments of Abydos.
The history of the construction of the most important pharaonic monuments in the region of Abydos in Sohag in Egypt and what are the discoveries of mud-brick ruins of the structure of the civilisation of ancient Egypt.
It is located 1 km north of the Temple of Ramses II and has brick ruins from the Middle Kingdom era, and there is evidence that the area has been known since the dawn of history.
Most of the Egyptian pharaohs left important monuments. Still, most of them were lost, and much of the temple built in the early days of the family of the God Osiris was lost. And in this area, small ivory statues, one of the magnificent ancient pieces, are kept in the Egyptian Museum “Museums of Egypt” in Cairo. There is the statue of the king crowned with the white crown in the British Museum in London. The statue of King Cheops, the builder of the Great Pyramid “The Pyramids of Giza”, is currently kept in the Egyptian Museum…
Now shown covered with sand and to the west of the area represents a crack wall or limestone building decorated by the mayors of King Sethi I and his son Ramses II and between the site of Kom Al-Sultan and Shonet Al-Zebib located the ruins of some residential buildings from the time of the Fourth Dynasty.
The history of the most important Pharaonic Monuments of Sohag Egypt and the most important discoveries of the mastabas and tombstones of the pharaoh kings tell us the secrets of the civilisation of ancient Egypt.
Located 15 km north of Abydos and considered part of the cemetery of the province of Thinie, at this place, King Djeser built a brick mastaba in the middle of a sandy plain. The burial chamber was dug into the rock, but Djeser was buried at Sakkara in his pyramid as well as King San ekhet, the successor of King Djeser, built a brick mastaba, but it is now covered with sand.
Shunet El Zebib
The history of the construction of the most important Pharaonic Monuments of Sohag in Egypt and what are the secrets of cemeteries or receiving the mummy of the dead discovered in the archaeological area, and more.
Located west of Kom Al-Sultan and northwest of Ramses II Temple.
It is a rectangular building in which massive brick walls were built. Most likely, the outer wall was a fortress built during the first or second days of the dynasty, part of which was probably a tomb where rooms were recently built using houses for guards guarding cemeteries.
Or to receive the mummy of the dead who came to the area in search of the blessing of Osiris, these houses were used to dry the grapes from which the name Shonand Al-Zebib came during the reign of the 22nd dynasty and beyond to place the mummy of the sacred bird “Ibis”.
Tombs of Om Al-Jaab
The history of the construction of the most important Pharaonic Monuments of Sohag in Egypt and what are the discoveries of the tombs of the kings of the first, second and third dynasties in the area of the tombs of Om Al-Jaab tell us the secrets of the civilisation of ancient Egypt.
And burrows mean dishes filled with offerings for the god Osiris.
It contains the tombs of the kings of the First, Second and Third Dynasties. About sixty years ago found, these tombs were looted and burned, but some beautiful monuments have been found, some of which are preserved by the Egyptian Museum, most of which are now covered with sand, and the German Institute is in the process of rediscovering to access new information about this site.
The history of the most important Pharaonic Monuments of Sohag and attractions of the archaeological areas of Jerja Sohag in Egypt and what discoveries of Pharaonic tombs, pottery were found and more.
Located south of Beit Khallaf, prehistoric cemeteries and arachnids have been found in various forms of red and polished tableware. They have uncovered multiple “slates” used for kohl plates, carpet remains, copper tools and some ivory combs composed of bird or animal shapes, and found bracelets, play tables and human and animal statues.